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Gabapentin (Neurontin) is a pharmaceutical drug, specifically a GABA analog. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and currently is also used to relieve neuropathic pain. There are, however, concerns regarding the quality of the trials conducted for a number of conditions
Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are used to help control certain types of seizures in people who have epilepsy. Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are also used to relieve the pain of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pain or aches that may last for months or years after an attack of shingles). Gabapentin extended-release tablets (Horizant) are used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS; a condition that causes discomfort in the legs and a strong urge to move the legs, especially at night and when sitting or lying down). Gabapentin is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. Gabapentin treats seizures by decreasing abnormal excitement in the brain. Gabapentin relieves the pain of PHN by changing the way the body senses pain. It is not known exactly how gabapentin works to treat restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentin for Headache: Is It Effective?
Narrowly defined, headache is pain in the head or face, and sometimes also includes pain in the upper neck. Pain sensitive structures in the head and face include the skin, bone and structures in the eyes, ears, nose and mouth. Also, the large blood vessels of the head are exquisitely sensitive and these are the principal organs causing pain in vascular headaches, such as migraines. The jaw hinge (called the temporomandibular joint) and the teeth can also generate headache. The brain itself is not pain sensitive and is not a source of head pain.
The most common type of headache is the tension or muscle contraction type, which is frequently caused by spasms in the neck muscles and the muscles of mastication (chewing). This type of headache is usually treated easily by over-the-counter medications. More intense headaches are caused by unknown mechanisms. Most theories of vascular headache involve the relationship between the nerves and the blood vessels, both of which can be sensitive.
A new review indicates that gabapentin may be an effective adjunct therapy for primary headache syndromes, but that there is not enough evidence to support its use as a primary treatment. This study on the off-label use of gabapentin for headache disorders appears online in the in the journal Pain Medicine.
The precise mechanism of gabapentin’s action is not well known. Even though this drug has a similar structure to a brain neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), it has no effect on its receptors. It is believed that gabapentin blocks calcium channels, modulating the release of excitatory neurotransmitters.
For the review, 56 articles were identified and eight clinical trials with quality of evidence Class 2 or higher based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Seven showed statistically significant clinical benefit from gabapentin in various headache syndromes (although the effects were modest at times) and one study had concerning intention-treat analysis breaches and primary outcomes. The primary outcomes in the review included frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, percentage of headache-free days per months in chronic daily headache, and episode duration and intervals for cluster headache.
It is believed that gabapentin may reduce the release of inflammatory neuropeptides implicated in headache pain, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P; it could also reduce the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. However, the authors concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to support it as primary therapy and that its use for headache syndromes should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
Gabapentin is indicated for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and as adjunct in partial seizures.
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Gabapentin (Neurontin) is a pharmaceutical drug, specifically a GABA analog. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and currently is also used to relieve neuropathic pain. NEURONTIN is a prescription medicine used to treat: Pain from damaged nerves (postherpetic pain) that follows healing ofshingles (a painful rash that comes after a herpes zoster infection) in adults. Partial seizures when taken together with other medicines in adults and children 3 years of age and older with seizures.
We have added Gabapentin as the substitutes of tramadol, please you can try to buy Gabapentin. Gabapentin is said better better Analgesic than Tramadol because gabapentin has no addictive problems. But Gabapentin is not used for children under age 6. Gabapentin is an anti-epileptic medication, also called an anticonvulsant. It affects chemicals and nerves in the body that are involved in the cause of seizures and some types of pain. Gabapentin is used in adults to treat nerve pain caused by herpes virus or shingles (herpes zoster). The Horizant brand Gabapentin is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). The Neurontin brand is also used to treat seizures in adults and children who are at least 6 years old.
Neurontin is FDA-approved for partial seizure (adjunct) in children age 3 to 12 and in adults. It is also FDA-approved for postherpetic neuralgia in adults. Neurontin is used primarily to treat epilepsy. More specifically it treats elementary partial seizures (brief, without loss of consciousness) and complex partial seizures (consciousness impaired), with and without secondary generalization (grand mal epilepsy with loss of consciousness). Usually it must be taken for two to three weeks to determine if it decreases the frequency or severity of seizures. Neurontin can only treat epilepsy; it is not a cure. Neurontin is also used to treat: Anxiety, Insomnia, and Chronic pain (not FDA approved for this use)
Neurontin has been used as a mood stabilizer, but some studies show that it is no more effective than a placebo in treating bipolar disorder.
Bu Buyinggabapentin.com, Gabapentin can be used for preventing migraine, treat nerve pain, restless legs syndrome, and Fibromyalgia. Actually Gabapentin relieves the pain of PHN by changing the way the body senses pain. You can buy Gabapentin to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alcohol withdrawal, chronic neuropathic pain, cocaine addiction, diabetic peripheral neuropathy,generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, menopause, migraine prevention, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social phobia, trigeminal neuralgia.
Gabapentin can also be used for more than 30 off-label health conditions such as: Benign Essential Tremor,,Bipolar Disorder,,Burning Mouth , yndrome, Cluster-Tic Syndrome, Cough, Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy, Epilepsy, Erythromelalgia, Fibromyalgia, Hiccups, Hot Flashes, Hyperhidrosis, Insomnia, Lhermitte’s Sign, Migraine, Nausea/Vomiting, Chemotherapy Induced, Neuropathic Pain, Occipital Neuralgia, Pain, Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Peripheral Neuropathy, Postherpetic Neuralgia, Postmenopausal Symptoms,Pruritus, Pudendal Neuralgia, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, Restless Legs Syndrome, Small Fiber Neuropathy, Spondylolisthesis, Syringomyelia, Transverse Myelitis, Trigeminal Neuralgia, Vulvodynia. For more information, please check drug.com Gabapentin page.
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Gabapentin Warnings and Precautions
Neurontin has been tested in children and adolescents from 3 to 18 years old, and its effects have been found to be the same as those in adults, when dosage is appropriately adjusted. Neurontin may impair the ability to drive or operate heavy machinery.
Neurontin should not be discontinued suddenly – sudden withdrawal may cause seizures to return or occur more frequently. Dosage should be gradually tapered over at least 7 days when Neurontin is discontinued. For Pregnant or Nursing Mothers: Neurontin has not been studied in pregnant women, but other antiepileptic drugs have been known to cause birth defects. Studies in animals indicate that very high doses of Neurontin can cause bone and kidney problems. It is not known whether Neurontin passes into breast milk, and nursing mothers should be cautious about using Neurontin.
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By some websites and health professional reasearch, Gabapentin is even a better Analgesic than Tramadol. That reasearch is from a health professional group from the University of Victoria. Because tramadol is a controlled medicine now, we do suggest you order gabapentin online. We provide the cheapest authentic COD gabapentin and cod fioricet online with USPS priority mail services. Gabapentin, or Neurontin, is an anticonvulsant with analgesic properties that is available in capsule, tablet and oral solution. It has a wide range of intended uses, including controlling specific types of seizures in patients with epilepsy, treating postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and restless leg syndrome. In the treatment of seizures, gabapentin decreases abnormal activity in the brain, specifically excitement. When treating PHN, which is the lingering pain after suffering shingles, gabapentin changes the way the body senses pain, lowering the burning, aching and stabbing pain that can last up to years after a diagnosis. However, it is unknown exactly how it works in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentin can also be used to as a pain reliever for those suffering from diabetic neuropathy, which is numbness or pain due to diabetes and subsequent nerve damage. For menopausal women or women being treated for breast cancer, gabapentin can relieve hot flashes. It has also proven as an effective treatment for those suffering from alcohol dependency. In a recent study, patients who received high doses of gabapentin were four times more likely to stop drinking altogether, and twice as likely to refrain from heavy drinking. It is the only medication to have shown to help the alcohol dependent sleep better and improve their moods.
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How Gabapentin is typically packaged?
Capsule: 100, 300, 400mg Tablet: 100, 300, 400, 600, 800mg Oral solution (brand-name only): 250mg/5mL
Normal Dosage Of Gabapentin
USAGE FOR EPILEPSY: The usual starting dose is 300mg for adults and children over 12 years of age. This dose is taken on the evening of the first day. Your doctor may then increase the dose on the second day to 300mg in the morning, and 300mg in the evening. On the third day you may be increased to 300mg three times per day. The maximum dosage is 3600mg per day. Gabapentin is not recommended for children under 12 years.
USAGE FOR DIABETIC NERVE PAIN: The dosage follows the rules for epilepsy, and may be continued for up to 5 months. If you suffer from any kidney problems, the doctor may issue a lower dosage.
USAGE AS A NERVE BLOCK: Gabapentin is not marketed for use as a nerve block, but is commonly used as such following successful applications. The dosage follows the same rules as for epilepsy patients, with a maximum dosage of 3600mg.
Dosage For Postherpetic Neuralgia
In adults with postherpetic neuralgia, NEURONTIN may be initiated on Day 1 as a single 300 mg dose, on Day 2 as 600 mg/day (300 mg two times a day), and on Day 3 as 900 mg/day (300 mg three times a day). The dose can subsequently be titrated up as needed for pain relief to a dose of 1800 mg/day (600 mg three times a day). In clinical studies, efficacy was demonstrated over a range of doses from 1800 mg/day to 3600 mg/day with comparable effects across the dose range; however, in these clinical studies, the additional benefit of using doses greater than 1800 mg/day was not demonstrated.
Gabapentin Mechanism of action
The mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of gabapentin has not been fully described. Several possible mechanisms for pain improvement have been discussed. Though similar in structure to the endogenous neurotransmitter GABA, gabapentin has not been shown to bind to GABA receptors at concentrations at or below 1 mM. Gabapentin modulates the action of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT), two enzymes involved in GABA biosynthesis. In human and rat studies, gabapentin was found to increase GABA biosynthesis, and to increase non-synaptic GABA neurotransmission in vitro.
Gabapentin prevents seizures in a wide variety of models in animals, including generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures. Gabapentin has no activity at GABAA or GABAB receptors of GABA uptake carriers of brain. Gabapentin interacts with a high-affinity binding site in brain membranes, which has recently been identified as an auxiliary subunit of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels.
Gabapentin has been shown to bind to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium ion channels, which contributes to its pain attenuation effects in diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia. Other neurophysiological findings indicate that gabapentin also interacts with NMDA receptors, protein kinase C, and inflammatory cytokines.
Gabapentin prevents pain responses in several animal models of hyperalgesia and prevents neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with models of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Gabapentin is also active in models that detect anxiolytic activity.
Although gabapentin may have several different pharmacological actions, it appears that modulation of GABA synthesis and glutamate synthesis may be important. Gabapentin interacts with cortical neurons at auxillary subunits of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Gabapentin increases the synaptic concentration of GABA, enhances GABA responses at non-synaptic sites in neuronal tissues, and reduces the release of mono-amine neurotransmitters. One of the mechanisms implicated in this effect of gabapentin is the reduction of the axon excitability measured as an amplitude change of the presynaptic fibre volley (FV) in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. This is mediated through its binding to presynaptic NMDA receptors. Other studies have shown that the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of gabapentin are mediated by the descending noradrenergic system, resulting in the activation of spinal alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Gabapentin has also been shown to bind and activate the adenosine A1 receptor.
Gabapentin For Migraine Prevention
International and domestic studies that have evaluated Neurontin for migraine prevention suggest that it is effective. In a study of 63 patients with migraine (with or without aura), gabapentin significantly reduced migraine frequency and intensity among 30 patients who received it. In this study, adverse events were mild to moderate in severity.
In people who are prone to migraine, these headaches can be triggered by a multitude of causes, including diet, stress, lights, strong smells and other environmental conditions (either external or internal). Once the migraine process has started, it usually requires medication to stop the headache. There are many other specific, less common headache diagnoses, such as cluster headaches and neuralgia, or nerve damage headaches.
Similarly, in a large study, 143 people with migraine received daily doses of Neurontin or placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the migraine rate had declined from 4.2 migraines before treatment to 2.7 migraines after treatment in those who received this drug. This decrease was significantly greater than the decrease from 4.1 migraines to 3.5 migraines among those who received placebo. Of the 56 gabapentin recipients, 46% had at least a 50% reduction in the four-week migraine rate. Drug-related adverse events (sleepiness and dizziness) led to drug withdrawal in 13% of patients in the gabapentin group compared with 7% in the placebo group. The researchers concluded that this medication is an effective and well-tolerated preventive for migraine.
However, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the organization that provides guidance for the use of drugs to prevent migraines, has stated that there is not enough evidence at this time to support the use of gabapentin for migraine prevention. Healthcare professionals can choose to prescribe gabapentin when other prevention therapies have not worked, however.
Some people can prevent migraines by avoiding triggers. Others have prevented migraines successfully through relaxation techniques, acupuncture, or exercise. However, these therapies alone don’t work for everyone. Some people also need treatment with medication to reduce the number of migraines they have. The drugs used to prevent migraines are different from drugs that to treat migraines once a migraine starts. Drugs that prevent migraines, such as gabapentin, must be taken daily.
For more information about Gabapentin, please check Gabapentin information in drugs.com or Gabapentin information in Webmd.com.
How should Gabapentin be used?
Gabapentin comes as a capsule, a tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, and an oral solution (liquid) to take by mouth. Gabapentin capsules, tablets, and oral solution are usually taken with a full glass of water (8 ounces [240 milliliters]), with or without food, three times a day.
These medications should be taken at evenly spaced times throughout the day and night; no more than 12 hours should pass between doses. The extended-release tablet (Horizant) is taken with food once daily at about 5 PM. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take gabapentin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Gabapentin extended-release tablets cannot be substituted for another type of gabapentin product. Be sure that you receive only the type of gabapentin that was prescribed by your doctor. Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about the type of gabapentin you were given.
Swallow the extended-release tablets whole; do not cut, chew, or crush them.
If your doctor tells you to take one-half of a regular tablet as part of your dose, carefully split the tablet along the score mark. Use the other half-tablet as part of your next dose. Properly throw away any half-tablets that you have not used within several days of breaking them.
If you are taking gabapentin to control seizures or PHN, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of gabapentin and gradually increase your dose as needed to treat your condition. If you are taking gabapentin to treat PHN, tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve during your treatment.
Gabapentin may help to control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to take gabapentin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking gabapentin without talking to your doctor, even if you experience side effects such as unusual changes in behavior or mood. If you suddenly stop taking gabapentin tablets, capsules, or oral solution, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, nausea, pain, and sweating. If you are taking gabapentin to treat seizures and you suddenly stop taking the medication, you may experience seizures more often. Your doctor may decrease your dose gradually over at least a week.
Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer’s patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with gabapentin and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs) or the manufacturer’s website to obtain the Medication Guide.
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What special precautions should I follow?Before taking gabapentin,
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to gabapentin, any other medications, or any of the inactive ingredients in the type of gabapentin you plan to take. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.
- you should know that gabapentin is available in different forms that may be prescribed for different uses. Ask your doctor to be sure that you are not taking more than one product that contains gabapentin.
- tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: hydrocodone (in Hydrocet, in Vicodin, others), medications that make you feel dizzy or drowsy, morphine (Avinza, Kadian, MSIR, others), and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, others). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
- if you are taking antacids such as Maalox or Mylanta, take them at least 2 hours before you take gabapentin tablets, capsules, or solution.
- tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease. If you will be taking the extended-release tablets, also tell your doctor if you need to sleep during the day and stay awake at night.
- tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking gabapentin, call your doctor.
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking gabapentin.
- you should know that this medication may make you drowsy or dizzy, may slow your thinking, and may cause loss of coordination. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you, and your doctor agrees that it is safe for you to begin these activities.
- if you are giving gabapentin to your child, you should know that your child’s behavior and mental abilities may change while he or she is taking gabapentin. Your child may have sudden changes in mood, become hostile or hyperactive, have difficulty concentrating or paying attention, or be drowsy or clumsy. Have your child avoid activities that could be dangerous, such as riding a bicycle, until you know how gabapentin affects him or her.
- remember that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this medication.
- you should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways and you may become suicidal (thinking about harming or killing yourself or planning or trying to do so) while you are taking gabapentin for the treatment of epilepsy, mental illness, or other conditions. A small number of adults and children 5 years of age and older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as gabapentin to treat various conditions during clinical studies became suicidal during their treatment. Some of these people developed suicidal thoughts and behavior as early as one week after they started taking the medication. There is a risk that you may experience changes in your mental health if you take an anticonvulsant medication such as gabapentin, but there may also be a risk that you will experience changes in your mental health if your condition is not treated. You and your doctor will decide whether the risks of taking an anticonvulsant medication are greater than the risks of not taking the medication. You, your family, or your caregiver should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: panic attacks; agitation or restlessness; new or worsening irritability, anxiety, or depression; acting on dangerous impulses; difficulty falling or staying asleep; aggressive, angry, or violent behavior; mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood); talking or thinking about wanting to hurt yourself or end your life; withdrawing from friends and family; preoccupation with death and dying; giving away prized possessions; or any other unusual changes in behavior or mood. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.
What should I do if I forget a dose?If you forget to take gabapentin capsules, tablets, or oral solution, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose or if you forget to take gabapentin extended-release tablets, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
Gabapentin abuse tends to occur in people who already have an addiction to opioids or other drugs. The effects of Gabapentin intoxication have been described as a sense of calm, euphoria, and a high similar to marijuana. A 2013 study in Kentucky found that of the 503 participants reporting illegal drug use, 15% reported using Gabapentin in addition to other drugs to get high in the previous six months. Another study, working with a sample of participants meant to represent the national population, found almost a quarter of patients with co-prescriptions of opioids and Gabapentin were getting more than three times their prescribed amount to supply their addiction. People using the drug without a prescription is a growing problem in many areas. Due to the drug’s legal status, this is difficult to address from a policing standpoint. States where Gabapentin abuse is becoming more common are beginning to classify the drug as a more strictly controlled substance. Gabapentin’s unique ability to address multiple ailments has made it one of the most popular prescription medications in the U.S. In May of 2019, GoodRx reported that it was the fifth-most prescribed drug in the nation. Despite its low abuse potential, its ability to be used in conjunction with other drugs causes widespread harm and addiction.
Signs of a Gabapentin Addiction
Effects of excessive Gabapentin use include:
- Coordination problems
- Suicidal thoughts/behaviors
- Changes in mood
- Poor coordination
- Difficulty speaking
- Inability to feel pleasure
It is important to try to recognize these symptoms and to be wary of other red flags, such as the presence or abundance of pill bottles. These effects can be detrimental to one’s health, livelihood, and overall safety.
Many Gabapentin users in early recovery abuse Gabapentin because at high doses (800mg or more), they may experience a euphoric-like high that does not show up on drug screens. Gabapentin abusers typically take the drug in addition to opioids to produce their desired high, a dangerous and potentially deadly combination.
It is possible to fatally overdose on Gabapentin, both on its own or in conjunction with other drugs. However, there is currently no antidote that can be administered to someone in the case of a Gabapentin overdose as there is with opioid overdoses.
If you find a loved one showing signs of an overdose–drowsiness, muscle weakness, lethargy and drooping eyelids, diarrhea, and sedation—seek medical attention immediately. Signs of Gabapentin Addiction
- Lying about or exaggerating symptoms to doctors
- Seeking out multiple doctors to get extra doses
- Switching doctors after the original doctor refuses to continue prescribing the medication
- Changes in social habits and/or circles
- Changes in personal hygiene and grooming habits
- Constant preoccupation with the drug
- Unease at the thought of the drug being unavailable
- Refusal to quit despite social, financial, or legal consequences
- Failed attempts to quit